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The Neurosciences Institute was the operating name for the scientific activities of the Neurosciences Research Foundation, Incorporated ("NRF") from 1981 to 2018. NRF is a non-profit scientific research organization dedicated to learning about the brain for the benefit of mankind. The Institute, founded by Nobel Laureate Gerald M. Edelman, focused its research on the principles underlying how we perceive and act upon the world, how we learn and remember, and how consciousness arises. The Institute carried out active research in experimental neurobiology until 2012 and continued its theoretical research program until 2018.

The Institute held firmly to the principle that creativity in science is best fostered in an environment with few pre-conceived research constraints and with unlimited opportunities for discovery and communication. Within a relatively small community of not more than 45 persons, the Institute over the years developed a unique and flexible program of scientific activities tailored to the requirements of each researcher, whether resident fellow or visitor. Resident fellows in theoretical and experimental neurobiology met daily to exchange data and ideas. The Institute also brought to its campus outstanding visiting scientists working in many different disciplines. It supported the individual creative work of these visiting scientists, whether their stay was for several days for a small conference or for several months, and encouraged them to formulate new research to be carried out upon their return to their own universities and laboratories. More than 1,000 scientists from over 300 institutions and 24 countries participated in these Institute programs.

Over its four decades, the Institute was funded through NRF by contributions and grants from a variety of donors. NRF is deeply grateful to all of them for their interest and support.